- 'ID violates the centuries-old ground rules of science by invoking and permitting supernatural causation;
- 'the argument of irreducible complexity, central to ID, employs the same flawed and illogical contrived dualism that doomed creation science in the 1980's and
- 'ID's negative attacks on evolution have been refuted by the scientific community.
In addition to the above:
- 'ID has failed to gain acceptance in the scientific community;
- 'it has not generated peer-reviewed publications;
- 'nor has it been the subject of testing and research.
It is important to note that the judge did not rule on whether the arguments of ID are true or not. The only question the court considered is whether or not ID was science.